Posts Tagged ‘Bavaria

In January 2012, Biergartens will celebrate their 200th anniversary. But what exactly is a Biergarten?

Biergarten, © Dieter Schütz / PIXELIO

In Germany, as the weather gets warmer, it is pretty common to see people sitting around wooden tables, enjoying a beer under huge chestnut trees, some of them having even brought something to eat while drinking. These places where everyone can stop to relax and order a fresh beer are called Biergartens, literally “beer gardens”. Their story goes back a few centuries in Bavaria.

It all started in 1539 when a Bavarian law banned beer brewing between St. George’s day on 23rd April and St. Michael’s day on 29th September. The boiling process used in brewing was indeed frequently the cause for fires. Brewers thus started to try to find a way to store the beer so as to have supplies all year long. They began making a beer with a higher alcohol rate, which allowed it to be stored longer: the Marzen (March beer). This beer would later be served during the Oktoberfest in Munich. In order to keep the beer at cool temperatures, cellars were dug underground. Barrels were stored in it with blocks of ice. However, the presence of a high water table prevented cellars to be built very deep. As a result, in summer, the beer was impacted by the heat from the sunbeams beating on the ground. So, to protect the cellars from the sun, trees were planted above them. With their great height, large leaves and thick roots, chestnut trees quickly appeared as the perfect trees for this purpose.

To buy their beer, Bavarians would come to a booth set up not far from the cellars with a big stein that brewers would fill up, before heading back home. Eventually, people took up the habit to drink their beer just after buying it. As centuries went by, brewers came up with the idea of allowing their customers to have a beer on the spot. In a decree issued on 4th January 1812, King Ludwig I of Bavaria – himself a beer lover – allowed brewers to create building facilities on top of cellars. Tables and benches were gathered under the chestnut trees where people could settle and enjoy a beer as well as something to eat. The traditional Biergarten was born! Yet, not everyone was happy with its appearance. Innkeepers and restaurant owners feared the competition and complained about it to Ludwig I. To prevent rebellion, the king made a compromise: Biergarten could keep serving beer but were no longer allowed to sell food. Patrons now had to bring their own food.


Very popular among Germans, the Biergarten lived on, anchoring itself into tradition, and went far beyond Bavaria’s borders. Biergarten can now be found in Cologne, Stuttgart or Berlin. And many drinking establishments around the world like to call themselves “Biergarten”. But a few tables on a terrace under a sign on which is written “Biergarten” or its English equivalent “beer garden” don’t make a proper Biergarten. An authentic Biergarten should indeed match some key criteria. First of all, beer must be served in one-liter steins (except for Weissbier, served in half-liters). Biergarten cannot go without wooden tables.  Furthermore, patrons should help themselves with beer – even though some places also provide the possibility to be served by a waiter. On top of that, while the ban on food offering was lifted, prompting many Biergarten to provide traditional specialties like Obaztda cheese spread, Knödels (potato or bread dumplings) and pretzels, it is still better for people to bring their own picnic baskets. Last but not least, a Biergarten would not be a Biergarten without the chestnut trees. Those now provide shadow to the customers.


If Germans like Biergarten so much, it is above all because of their conviviality and accessibility. Young and old people, locals and tourists, people of all nationalities, of all social backgrounds, families, friends, lone persons: everyone gather around the wooden tables to clink glasses with the person next seat, whoever it is. It is even common to end up having a long discussion with a perfect stranger! The Bavarian Biergarten Decree even praises the social function of Biergartens, which help reducing isolation and have contributed to the unity of Germans as a people. Biergarten also appear as pleasant green areas in strongly urbanized places.


With over 100 Biergartens and seating for 180 000 people, Munich and the neighboring area remain the best place to enjoy a beer in the shade of chestnut trees. It does not matter whether you chose to go to the Hirschgarten or to the Chinese Tower, the two most famous Biergartens, or whether you prefer a simpler one: if you happen to go to Munich between late April and late September, don’t forget to try the Biergarten experience!

Viktualienmarkt, © Jürgen Heimerl / PIXELIO



Article 1 about Biergartens

Article 2 about Biergartens

German website about Biergartens

Bavarian Biergarten Decree (German)

Pictures: PIXELIO

In France, folk costumes seem a little old-fashioned, or even completely out-of-date. It is hard to imagine a woman in Strasbourg wearing the famous Alsatian bow. However, it is not the same in German-speaking countries which has a strong attachment to its traditions. Therefore, in some areas, you can notice some women in Dirndl.

Dirndl (photo from Florian Schott)

The Dirndl is a traditional costume worn by women in Bavaria, in Tyrol, in the basin of Salzburg and in Liechtenstein.  The top of the Dirndl traditionally consists of a white, generally low-cut, blouse with puffed sleeves covered by a bodice while the bottom consists of a long gathered cotton skirt and an apron. The entire costume is made of hand-printed colourful fabrics. It should be noted that the placement of the knot is an indicator of the woman’s marital status, like the Tahitian Gardenia in Polynesia.

Dirndl is a word from the Austrian and Bavarian dialect, equivalent to the German word Dirn, referring to both a young woman and a servant in the countryside. The costume she wore was called the Dirndlgewand (literally the “gown of the maid”) which was later reduced to Dirndl. Nowadays this form is more used to refer to the alpine costume than to the woman wearing it.

Contrary to what you may think, the Dirndl was not originally worn in rural areas but in urban ones by burghers. In the upper classes, the Dirndl became more and more popular during the second half of the 19th century. At the time, it was considered as country garments and, as a result, upper-class women wore it during their stay out of the cities.

In the interwar years, during the economic crisis, the Dirndl was a great success mainly because of its attractive price, especially since other female garments were particularly expensive at the time. According to the tradition, the Dirndl should be worn on Sundays or during the celebrations in honour of the parish or the patron of the town. However, this costume has only been present in since the 1990’s. Therefore, during the Oktoberfest in Munich, a lot of women are seen wearing a Dirndl.

Nowadays, it is frequent to notice Austrian or Bavarian women wearing a Dirndl in their everyday life, regardless of their ages. It is only natural that the Dirndl should evolve with fashion. Consequently, it is now possible to find Dirndl in various lengths, different shades and different materials. However, since the 2000s, Dirndl have been even “part” of fashion for the great designers have put them in their collections, like Karl Lagerfeld and Oscar de la Renta in 2010 for instance.



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